Xenophanes of Colophon March 5, 2012Posted by nellysiska in girls, philosophy.
Tags: asian girls, cute girls, philosophy, politics, religion, science, theology
1 comment so far
Like the other founders of Greek philosophy, Xenophanes lived in Ionia and investigated natural phenomena such as the basic substances, the history and structure of the cosmos, and weather phenomena. He is best known for his criticisms of religious beliefs and practices, for his own conception of the divine, and for being the earliest philosopher to discuss epistemological questions.
A poet who traveled widely in Greek lands, he composed his philosophical work in verse, presumably for performance, which suggests that his radical theological views were not abhorrent to his audiences. Some forty fragments of his writings survive, more than one hundred lines, far more than what remains from any earlier philosopher.
His theological fragments consist in statements that seemingly criticize the anthropomorphic polytheism of Greek tradition and in pronouncements on the true nature of god. He claims that (just like the Greeks) Ethiopians and Thracians believe their gods look like themselves (frag. 16) and that if animals could draw, horses would depict their gods as horses, oxen as oxen, etc. (frag. 15). He reproaches the revered poets Homer and Hesiod for ascribing to the gods actions humans con- sider immoral (frag. 11).
He does not argue that these diverse accounts of the divine are false or even contradictory, but the remark about animals seems intended to ridicule the differing human (including Greek) beliefs about the gods. Nor is the reproach about the gods’ behavior an argument, but it further undermines tradition: Greeks not only think the gods are like humans, they think they are immoral too!
Xenophon February 27, 2012Posted by nellysiska in girls, philosophy.
Tags: apology of socrates, asian girls, citizen soldier, cute girls, graceful prose, platonic dialogue, post socratic philosophers
add a comment
Xenophon was an Athenian citizen, soldier, gentleman-farmer, historian, and author of many varied and often graceful prose works. When young he knew Socrates, whom he consulted before joining, in 401, the famous expedition to Persia narrated in his masterpiece, the Anabasis.
Xenophon played a part in leading the defeated remnant back to Greece. Meanwhile, in 399, Socrates had been executed on trumped-up charges. In the subsequent pamphleteering, Xenophon wrote in Socrates’ defense.
His so-called Apology of Socrates is an unconvincing footnote to Plato’s; but later he compiled his extensive and valuable Memorabilia (Recollections of Socrates) the work that has given Xenophon, not himself a philosopher, considerable importance to all post-Socratic philosophers.
In it Xenophon supplemented his defense of Socrates against specific charges (made in a pamphlet by Polycrates) with a more general description of his character as a man, a friend, and a teacher, strongly emphasizing his beneficial influence on all who knew him and, for illustration, recording many conversations in which Socrates’ views or methods were displayed.
Xunzi February 22, 2012Posted by nellysiska in girls, philosophy.
Tags: asian girls, confucian tradition, cute girls, ethical discourse, honor and shame, systematic character, warring states period
add a comment
Among the classical Confucian thinkers of the Warring States period (Zhanguo 475–221 BCE), Xunzi plays a commanding role in the systematic development and defense of Confucian Tradition. Xunzi’s teachings are contained in the Xunzi, compiled by Liu Xiang of the Former Han (206 BCE–8 CE).
Although some scholars have questioned the authenticity of some of the essays, this work shows remarkable coherent and reasoned statements of the central aspects of the Confucian ethical and political vision of a harmonious and well-ordered society.
Moreover, especially impressive is Xunzi’s wide-ranging interest in such timeless issues as the ideal of the good human life, relation between morality and human nature, the nature of deliberation, ethical discourse and argumentation, moral agency and moral knowledge, the ethical significance of honor and shame, ethical uses of historical knowledge, moral education, and personal cultivation. Because of the comprehensive and systematic character of his philosophical concerns, Xunzi is sometimes compared to Aristotle.
Whereas both Mencius and Xunzi are exponents and defenders of Confucius’s ideal of well-ordered society, traditional Chinese scholars often distinguish their thought by the contrast between government by ren or benevolence and government by li (rites, rules of proper conduct). However, for both, the key concepts are ren, yi (righteousness, rightness, fittingness), and li.
Yang Xiong February 13, 2012Posted by nellysiska in girls, philosophy.
Tags: asian girls, court poet, cute girls, dialect words, poetic genius, sophisticated readers, yang xiong, youthful ambition
add a comment
Having achieved his youthful ambition to become court poet, Yang Xiong spent his thirties and forties producing the occasional fu (rhapsodic poems) the throne required.
Sometime around his fiftieth year, perhaps in reaction to the factionalized politics at the capital, Yang came to disparage his own poetic genius, equating the verbal pyrotechnics with childish games injurious to the moral process.
In consequence, Yang turned to composing and then defending three works, the Taixuan jing (Canon of Supreme Mystery; c. 4 CE), the Fayan (Model Sayings;c.12 CE), and the Fangyan (Dialect Words; unfinished?).
Creating these new “classics” (jing) required greater ingenuity on Yang’s part than writing fu, for Yang sought to capture both the inner message and the outer form of the canonical works: The Mystery was patterned after the Yijing (Classic of Changes); the Model Sayings, after the Lunyu (Analects); and the Fangyan claimed inspiration from the ancient Chou transcriptions of the Odes and possibly also the Erya, an early word list ascribed to Confucius. By such bold attempts at “renewing the old”, Yang would restore the authentic teachings of the sages.
Yang Zhu February 12, 2012Posted by nellysiska in girls, philosophy.
Tags: asian girls, authenticy, chinese intellectuals, cute girls, girls, hanfeizi, huainanzi, lushi, qin china
add a comment
Not much has been discovered about Yang Zhu the person from the documents that still exist. However, the Mencius, the Xunzi, the Hanfeizi, the Lushi Chunqiu, the Huainanzi, and the Lunheng all confirm that Yang’s school was one of the most influential in pre-Qin China.
For Mencius, Yang and Mo Di were the most influential thinkers prior to Mencius’s time, although he criticized Yang’s emphasis on the individual and its anarchist consequence, as well as his selfishness and apathy to the public interest. These criticisms, however, are somewhat misleading for an understanding of the true nature of Yang’s thought.
In the past, Chinese intellectuals were led to believe that “Yang Zhu chooses to exist only for his own self, and does nothing for the world, not even by drawing one hair of his” (Mencius 3B 9). Yet an unbiased understanding, based on existing texts, reveals that Yang cherished the value of life and the authenticity of self.
For example, the Hanfeizi said that Yang was one who “despised things and values life”. In the Lushi Chunqiu,it was said that “Scholar Yang elevates the self”. And, according to the Huainanzi, “To keep the totality of one’s natural life and conserve the authenticy of one’s self, not to burden one’s body with external things. This is that upon which Yangzi stands, yet it is criticized by Mencius”.
Zhuangzi February 3, 2012Posted by nellysiska in girls, philosophy.
Tags: asian girls, cute girls, dynamic character, galloping horse, prime ministership, private name, self transformation, subjective point of view
add a comment
Zhuangzi, the greatest Daoist next to Laozi, was also known by his private name, Zhou. Not much is known about his life except that he was a minor government official at one time and that he later declined a prime ministership in the state of Chu to retain his freedom.
Although Zhuangzi and Mencius were contemporaries, they were not acquainted with each other’s teachings. Zhuangzi advanced the concept of Dao and gave Daoism a dynamic character. To him, Dao as Nature is not only spontaneity but also a constant flux, for all things are in a state of perpetual “self-transformation”, each according to its own nature and in its own way.
If there is an agent directing this process, there is no evidence of it. Things seem to develop from simple to higher life and finally to man, but man will return to the simple stuff, thus completing a cycle of transformation.
In this unceasing transfiguration, things appear and disappear. In such a universe “time cannot be recalled” and things move like “a galloping horse”. They seem to be different, some large and some small, some beautiful and some ugly, but Dao equalizes them as one.
Zhu Xi February 2, 2012Posted by nellysiska in girls, philosophy.
Tags: civil service exam, civil service examinations, classical canon, national bureaucracy, thomas aquinas, zhu xi
add a comment
Zhu Xi was a leading scholar, thinker, and teacher of the revival of philosophical Confucianism known at the time as Daoxue (learning of the way), often referred to as neo-Confucianism. The prolific author of texts synthesizing the views of his immediate predecessors and reinterpreting the classical canon, Zhu Xi attained a status in the Chinese tradition comparable to that of Thomas Aquinas in the European world.
Zhu’s influence has been even more pervasive and long-lived, however; from 1313 until their abolition in 1905, China’s civil service examinations took Zhu’s commentaries to be the authoritative interpretations of the classics. Hence for nearly a millennium every literate individual in China had at least some familiarity with Zhu’s teachings.
Zhu was born into turbulent times. In 1127 Jurchen people conquered northern China. Zhu’s father was among many who protested the humiliating peace treaty that China was forced to accept, and he was demoted to a rural position in Anhui, where Zhu was born.
Zhu took up his father’s politics as he matured, committing himself to the hawkish group that wanted to take back the north. Partly out of disenchantment with the regime’s failure to follow such policies, Zhu never played a significant role in the national bureaucracy despite having passed the highest-level civil service exam and having received his jinshi degree at the age of nineteen.
Xavier Zubiri January 22, 2012Posted by nellysiska in girls, history, philosophy, science.
Tags: christian existentialist, Christian ontologist, doctorate of theology, edmund husserl, martin heidegger, philosophy
1 comment so far
Xavier Zubiri, the Spanish Christian ontologist, was born in San Sebastián. He was professor of the history of philosophy in Madrid from 1926 to 1936 and in Barcelona from 1940 to 1942, after an absence abroad during the Spanish Civil War. He then left university teaching to give well-attended “private courses” in Madrid. His influence in Spain has been out of all proportion to the scanty amount of his published work.
Zubiri has been called a Christian existentialist, and indeed that is one aspect of his effort to synthesize neoscholastic theology with certain contemporary philosophies (those of Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, and José Ortega y Gasset) and with modern science. To achieve this harmonizing of separate disciplines, Zubiri undertook studies in theology, philosophy, and natural science that could well have occupied three scholarly lives.
He took a doctorate of theology in Rome and of philosophy in Madrid (where he studied under Ortega) before attending Heidegger’s lectures in Freiburg and studying physics, biology, and Asian languages in various European centers. He translated into Spanish not only metaphysical works by Heidegger but also texts on quantum theory, atomic science, and mathematical physics generally.
From this extensive study Zubiri concluded that positive science and Catholic philosophy were separate points of view concerning the same reality. The philosopher-theologian cannot dispute, correct, or complete anything in science, but neither does he have to accept the philosophical opinions of scientists.